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Identity Security: Ensuring Safety for Both Human and Non-Human Entities

In today's digital landscape, identity security has expanded beyond just human users to include a myriad of non-human identities. These non-human entities, such as applications, APIs, IoT devices, and automated systems, now play a crucial role in organizational ecosystems. Securing these identities is essential to protect against cyber threats. This article explores the challenges and strategies involved in managing identity security for both human and non-human identities.

The Emergence of Non-Human Identities

Traditionally, identity security focused on human users, involving credentials like usernames and passwords. However, the digital transformation has introduced numerous non-human identities, which often outnumber human identities within an organization. These include machine identities, automated systems, and digital agents performing various tasks autonomously. For instance, it is estimated that there are 45 non-human identities for every human identity in many organizations​.

Challenges in Securing Non-Human Identities

  1. Complexity and Volume: The vast number of non-human identities, coupled with their dynamic nature, poses a significant challenge. Each identity requires appropriate authentication and authorization mechanisms to ensure secure interactions within the network.

  2. Lifecycle Management: Non-human identities often lack proper lifecycle management. Many are created for temporary tasks and then forgotten, leading to potential security vulnerabilities if they are not properly decommissioned​.

  3. Access Control: Ensuring that non-human identities have the least privilege necessary to perform their functions is critical. Misconfigured access controls can lead to unauthorized access to sensitive data and systems​ ​​.

Effective Strategies for Identity Security

  1. Ephemeral Credentials: Shifting from static passwords to ephemeral, certificate-based credentials can significantly enhance security. These credentials have a short lifespan, reducing the risk of misuse if compromised​.

  2. Granular Access Controls: Applying the principle of least privilege and using granular access controls tailored to each identity type can prevent over-privileged access and minimize security risks​​.

  3. Continuous Monitoring and Auditing: Regularly monitoring and auditing non-human identities ensures that any unauthorized access or unusual behavior is quickly detected and addressed. This includes maintaining an up-to-date inventory of all non-human identities and their permissions​​.

  4. Integrated Security Systems: Ensuring that identity management systems for both human and non-human identities are integrated can provide a cohesive security posture. This integration helps in maintaining consistent security policies and practices across the organization​.


The expansion of digital ecosystems has necessitated a broader approach to identity security, encompassing both human and non-human entities. As organizations adopt more automation and interconnected systems, robust identity security measures become essential. By implementing dynamic credentials, granular access controls, continuous monitoring, and integrated security systems, organizations can effectively protect against the evolving threat landscape and ensure the security of all identities within their networks.

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